Ginkgo biloba (Maidenhair Tree Leaf)


Inhibition of PAF (platelet activating factor), Antioxidant (free-radical scavenging), Reduction of blood viscosity (causes an increase in the rate of blood flow), Neuro-protection, Stabilization of capillary permeability.


Ginkgo biloba is a plant extract used to alleviate symptoms associated with cognitive deficits, e.g., decreased memory performance, lack of concentration, decreased alertness, tinnitus, and dizziness. A treatment period of 4 to 6 weeks is needed before a pronounced effect could be expected (Soholm, B. 1998).


Terpenoids (bilobalide), Diterpenoids (ginkgolide A, ginkgolide B, ginkgolide C, ginkgolide J, ginkgolide M), Flavonoids: Flavones(luteolin, tricetin, 2-hydroxyluteolin), Biflavones (amentoflavone, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, sciadoptysin, 5-methoxybilobetin, bilobetin), Flavonols (caempherol, quercetin, isorhammetin), Flavone glycosides, Flavone acyl glycosides, Catechins, Steroids (sitosterol, sitosterol glucoside).


Ernst, E. and Matrai, A. (1986). Hamorheologische in-vitro Effekte von Ginkgo biloba. Herz/Kreislauf. 18;358.

Pincemail, J., Thirion, A., Dupuis, M., Braquet, P., Drieu, K., and Delby, C. (1987). Ginkgo biloba Extract Inhibits Oxygen Species Production Generated by Phorbol Myristate Acetate Stimulated Human Leukocytes. Experientia. 43(2); 181-184.

Pincemail, J., Dupuis, M., Nasr, C., Hans, P., Haag-Berrurier, M., Anton, R. and Delby, C. (1989). Superoxide Anion Scavenging Effect and Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Ginkgo biloba Extract. Experientia. 45(8); 708-712.

Pincemail, J. and Deby, C. (1991). In: F.H. Kemper and H. Schmid-Schonbein, eds. Ginkgo biloba EGb 761, Vol.1; Pharmakologie, pp.91-102. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Simon, M.F., Chap, H., Braquet, P. and Douste-Blazy, L. (1987). Effect of BN 52021, a specific Antagonist of Platelet Factor (PAF-acether), on Calcium Movements and Phosphatidic Acid Production Induced by PAF-acether in Human Platelets. Thromb. Res. 45(4);299-309.

Soholm, B. (1998). Clinical improvement of memory and other cognitive functions by Ginkgo biloba: review of relevant literature. Adv. Ther. 15(1):54-65.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

Georges-Louis Friedli, PgDip., MSc., PhD.